Beginning in 1849, after the downfall of feudalism, each person was assigned the right of domicile in a specific municipality. The right of domicile granted a person specific rights within that community, including a social safety net in case of poverty. The right of domicile remained valid until it was cancelled in 1948. 

The home affiliation of a person was initially determined by birth. Children born in matrimony inherited the right of domicile in the same town as their father. Illegitimate children were assigned the same home affiliation as their mother. Women acquired their husband's home affiliation at the time of their marriage. If a mother married and her pre-marital children were not legitimized, the original affiliation remained. A woman's right of domicile didn't change in the case of divorce, seperation, or widowhood. If an individual became a public employee in a town other than where they had right of domicile, they would acquire the home affiliation in the town where they were employed. A person could change their home affiliation by petitioning the municipal council, although, since the town would become responsible for that individual, the requests were not treated lightly.

Registers of citizens

Each town hall kept a "Register of citizens", which listed all individuals with the right of domicile in that community. These registers were recorded either in a book or on index cards. The